Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theE- Business and Opportunities for JB HI-FI Company. Answer: This report reflects how retail stores in Australia are adapting towards online business with a view to increase their overall market share. With the increasing ramification of economic changes and complex business conditions, each and every organization is adapting online business in their business functioning. There are several stores such as Wesfarmers, Woolworths and Mayer who have installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning (Van Everdingen, Van Hillegersberg and Waarts, 2010). This system is adopted by them with a view to ease their manual work and make automation in their business functioning. It is considered that with the changing business environments, clients are more clients towards company which uses sophisticated technologies in their value chain activities (Katerattanakul, Lee and Hong, 2014). In this report, JB HI-FI Company has been taken into consideration. It is an Australian electronic goods selling company. This co mpany has installed cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning which will help clients to shop online through its developed dashboards. This cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning will also increase the overall communication between employees to employees and employees to clients. The operating system of JB-HI-FI is completely based on the cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in which all the works are segregated to different departments such as functional, budgetary, matrix project department. It is evaluated that clients needs and demand have been changing throughout the time (Gerow, et al. 2014). Many retails stores such as Wesfarmers, Red Ballon and Dhaka have adopted cyber computing enterprises resources planning system in their business functioning so that they could take their business online and create effective brand image in clients. Market. This level of technologies ado ptions allows clients to do window shopping effectively by surfing on net (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). This not only saves clients time but also allow them to broad their choices with millions of products choice. This level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system has shown a bright future for JB-Hi-FI to increase its overall turnover and effective business functioning. If JB-HI-FI could consistently adopt this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system to keep its business online with unique features as per the expectation and clients interest then it will surely result to bright future and effective brand image of company (Flamholtz and Randle, 2012). Now in the end, it could be inferred that this level of cyber computing enterprises resources planning system will bring more simplicity and effective business functioning for retails stores in Australia. However, innovation and creation of technologies will determine the vulnerability of online business of retail stores throughout the time. However, with the present level of demand and clients inclinations, if retails stores wants to create effective brand image and increase their turnover then adoption of online business is very much required part of business. Therefore, it could be inferred that retails stores and their online business has effective and positive future. References Flamholtz, E.G. and Randle, Y., 2012. Corporate culture, business models, competitive advantage, strategic assets and the bottom line: Theoretical and measurement issues.Journal of Human Resource Costing Accounting,16(2), pp.76-94. Gerow, J.E., Grover, V., Thatcher, J.B. and Roth, P.L., 2014. Looking toward the future of IT-business strategic alignment through the past: A meta-analysis.Mis Quarterly,38(4), pp.1059-1085. Katerattanakul, P., J. Lee, J. and Hong, S., 2014. Effect of business characteristics and ERP implementation on business outcomes: An exploratory study of Korean manufacturing firms.Management Research Review,37(2), pp.186-206. Van Everdingen, Y., Van Hillegersberg, J. and Waarts, E., 2010. Enterprise resource planning: ERP adoption by European midsize companies.Communications of the ACM,43(4), pp.27-31.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Satirical techniques in Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down The phrase Yellow Back refers to the culture of different fiction novels that created the myth of the Old West at the end of the nineteenth century. Although some people describe old west as just a state of mind, "one had to describe in one word the books that transformed not only series publishing but all publishing in the last half of the nineteenth century, it would be yellow-back'". (Harry Rusche). Radio is the culture that followed that era and after so many years, it became the TV culture; then cable TV; then MTV and now, the latest technology of cyberspace. Broke-down is a phrasal verb that means to stop functioning. However, in this paper, the terms are different in some ways. Radio "refers to the novel's oral, discontinuous form". (Carl Brucker). The term broke-down' means, "dismantling". Thus, the title of the novel means, "dismantling of a genre done in an oral way like radio". (Carl Brucker). "Yellow Back Radio" can also be read as symbolic of a media broadcasting traditi onal American values of capitalism and monotheism back in the 60's. That is how author Ishmael Reed defines it. Need essay sample on "Satirical techniques in Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Undergraduates Very Often Tell Us: I've procrastinated to write my film essays essay way too much today & I still don't wanna write it EssayLab professionals propose: Get Your Essay Before The Deadline How To Write A Term PaperHow To Write A 5 Paragraph EssayCheap EssaysPay For PapersCollege Papers For SalePay For EssayEssays For SaleBuy Essay Before proceeding to this paper's main theme, brief information on Reed is a must. Born 1938 in Tennessee, a state in the southern part of the USA, Ishmael Reed grew up in middle class neighborhoods in Buffalo, New York-the working class people. He attended the University of Buffalo. When Reed moved to New York City, he co-founded an underground newspaper called' East Village Other' in 1965. It achieved a national reputation. Also in 1965, he organized the American Festival of Negro Art. A novelist, poet, and essayist, a songwriter, television producer, publisher, magazine editor, playwright, and founder of the Before Columbus Foundation and There City Cinema, among his many hats, Reed has been a lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley. He now lives in Oakland, California. The purposes of this book review are, one: to find the political or social message in the text. Two: to see the larger `truth` being satirized. Three: the use of incongruity throughout the novel's powe r relationships between the Loop Garoo Kid and Drag. And four: the writers view for and against the novel's critical message. Above and beyond that, this novel will also define words like: satirical, incongruity, vodoun, hoodooism and houngan to name a few. In the novel "Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down", the study of it involves incongruity. In this novel, the term incongruity refers to the act of being inappropriate and unsuitable. For example, in the 60's, America still has not embraced the concept of accepting black people as part of their citizens. It was a time of transition for politics and new beliefs. It was "incongruent" at that time in a positive way because Reed was thinking ahead of his time. He saw that one day there would not only be equality among races in the USA but also a peaceful transfer of power from one white leader into another black leader as the case of today that there are now people-of-color policing different states across America. In Reed's time of writing this novel, there was already black cowboys way before his time. The old west was in fact, a history of two races-black and white people. According to history, "in 1513 thirty Africans with Balboa hacked their way through the lush vegetation of Panama and rea ched the Pacific. His men paused to build the first large European ships on the Pacific coast. Africans were with Ponce de Leon when he reached Florida" (William Katz). William Loren Katz stated that the explorers used Africans as interpreters in trading and exploratory ventures. This was first the idea of Portuguese conquistadors in the fifteenth century. Prince Henry actually ordered in 1435 that interpreters be used on all voyages to stabilize peace upon docking. Portuguese ships even brought Africans to Lisbon where they would be taught the language that could be used to interpret on subsequent voyages to Africa. As for the novel, it is filled with religious conflict on every page one will leaf through. The main character of the story is The Loop Garoo Kid-an African-American cowboy and Neohoodoo Houngan. Loop Garoo struggles to combat his nemesis in the person of Drag. Drag Gibson is an influential landowner who believes in Judeo-Christian Values. The United States, in all over the world, is the only country that defines itself as such. Judeo Christian, by the way is, "a belief in the biblical sense of Israel, in God's Ten Commandments and His biblical moral laws. It is a belief in universal, not relative, morality. It is a belief that America must answer morally to this God, not to the mortal, usually venal, governments of the world". (Dennis Prager). This means, in layman's terms, that it is a monotheistic religion that believes in God and corruption. In more words than usual, this novel by Ishmael Reed is more political than storytelling. Another character in the novel is Chief Showcase. Based on the story, he is the last surviving Native-American in the Yellow Back region. When Drag slaughtered all of Chief's people, the latter began writing prose against the sovereign of Drag in the town. This signifies the changes in USA when the white people eradicated the Native American tribes. Countless battles have been fought to relocate the Indians' into reservation camps. The 3 major characters showed most of the satirical humor of Reed. One, Drag killed a total of 7 wives in the entirety of the novel. This symbolizes failed marriages and divorce with failing amicable settlement on both parties. Two, the country's government's greed to take over lands that were once owned by capitalists is present in Chief Showcase's character of flying between two sides-landowners and the country's bureaucracy. The novel's minor characters also displayed satiric humor. Moustache Sal is the nymphomaniac mail-order bride of Drag. She does not have any racial discrimination at all in her persona. She even consorted with Loop Garoo and Chief. This signifies adultery and the trend of WASP's to order strangers from another country and marry them. Another character is Zozo Labrique. She is a Mambo. A Mambo is the female version of a Houngan. Killed by Drag's men, she reappeared as Loa-a spirit that guided Loop Garoo when summoned. This type of ritual signifies the idea that in Voduan, we are capable of calling forth the spirits that can gu ide us. Another character that best typifies human folly in the history of America is Pope Innocent. The Pope was just a very minor detail in the novel but the fact that he was invited by Drag meant that it is an epitome of how the Catholic Church suppressed the weaker cultures. The novel tells us how every now and then the Catholic Church will fight an insurgent small group. The next minor character is Reverend Boyd: the minister of a minor religion-Protestantism. This character satirizes the fact that church leaders have more skeletons in the closet than ordinary citizens. An example of this is the minister's resorting to drinking. It was very subtle of Reed to only state the drinking problem. In today's global news, leaders of religious sects have sex scandals already. The last minor character worth remembering in the novel is Field Marshall Theda Doompussy Blackwell. Upon reading the novel, one will have a vision that Blackwell is homosexual. Viewed as weak, and petulant, he is a symbol of the corrupt laws of the government in the early years of USA at the height of the Yellow back era. Poking fun at the image that men in uniform are often tough and rough, Reed made sure that this arm of the law is a non-conformist of the norms in his own right. The hidden truth in this novel is not a one item-one sentence description. There is the Loop Garoo who fights for his own beliefs; there is Drag Gibson who is the bully representative of the upper white class; there is Chief who, like a turncoat, flies between the eagle and the dove. Racial conflict is very much paramount in the novel too. The focus of the novel was the conflict between Loop Garoo and Drag Gibson: ebony versus ivory. Religious conflict: Neohoodooism against Judeo-Christianity. In the end, when Drag died because of Yellow Back's steel jawed hogs, it could well mean that the fatty foods of rich people with tender love for meat and heavy meals might kill them or it could mean another thing like broken promises of white leaders. In truth, the novel is one-sided it is old and was published back in the 60's. Leaders today, whether black or white, have failed promises as well. This novel could be a symbol of post war America but it does not speak of the American people's vo ice anymore than it used to do. The good: amazing description on symbolism; good choice of words; tremendous plot and uniquely named characters. The bad: quite outdated. This novel however, will always be a good read for satire and symbolism lovers. Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down makes fun of the Americans' eagerness to suspend civil rights in response to student protests of the Vietnam War. The novel is a talking novel because it has more dialogues than scenes and plots and is narrated by Loop Garoo-the post-war hero who brought new ideas and different concepts. Works Cited Brucker, Carl. "Ishmael Reed: Reedwritin' is a Contextual Query". 1987. June 23,2008 http://daphne.palomar.edu/rlatas/ho/100/reedwrittin.htm . Emick, Jennifer "Alternative Religions". 2008. June 22,2008 Gover, Robert. "Neohoodooism". JSTOR. June 23, 2008 http://www.jstor.org/pss/3041491 Katz, William. "The Black West". October 2005. June 23, 2008 http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/blackink/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780767912310 Prager, Dennis. "What does Judeo-Christian mean? The Uniqueness of America". March 30,2004. June 23, 2008 http://www.jewishworldreview.com/0304/prager_2004_03_30_04.php3 Reed, Ishmael. "Yellow Back Radio broke down". 1969. Novel. Rusche, Harry. "Women's Genre Fiction Project: The yellow-back novel". June 23, 2008 http://womenwriters.library.emory.edu/genrefiction/doc-tgfwfw-hr_yellowbacks . Vodoun Culture. Vodoun official website. June 23, 2008http://www.geocities.com/athens/Delphi/5319/whatis.htm
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Dysfunction and Childhood Sexual Abuse essays Child sexual abuse is defined as the abuse of trust, power and authority that occurs through exposure of a child to sexual behavior and acts (Scott et al, 2011). Understanding the effects of sexual child abuse is critical for psychologist since knowledge of the collective symptoms depicted by adults who were child sexual abuse victims is useful in undertaking appropriate interventions and diagnosis among adult exhibiting pathological problems and symptoms and especially for those adults with histories of abuse. This paper provides an overview of the relationship between child abuse and various adult psychopathology manifestations and specifically touches on various topics including the psychosexual effects of sexual abuse, sexual abuse based on gender, development and social model, suicide, and so on. Extensive research over the years has indicated that child sexual abuse has adverse effects on the variables pertaining to adult psychological outcome and especially on psychological de velopment and emotion well being of the victims as adults. Researchers have also sought to identify various risks that predispose children from given populations to sexual abuse and the way that these factors play a role in influencing the psychological outcomes of the victims as adults, the effects of moderators on the effects of sexual abuse, effects on psychosexual functioning, behavioral, emotional among other aspects. One major area of adult functioning that is affected by child sexual abuse is psychosexual functioning. Sexual maladjustment behaviors in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, which include an increased preoccupation with sex and sexual risk taking behavior, and compulsive sexual behavior, are for instance widely noted among victims of child sexual abuse (Scott et al, 2011). Other researches have identified that there is a significant correlation between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders especially in relation to the sexual ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Decline of Michael Jackson - Essay Example he nature of media exploitation and public opinion, the reputation of a talented musician was devastated, contributing to his ill health and leading to his death. In the following dissertation, the topic of the facts of the controversies in comparison to the public perception will be discussed in order to find context for the events that occurred and the truths that they represent. Michael Jackson, named by the music industry as Ã¢â¬Ëthe king of popÃ¢â¬â¢ was a talented, but tormented man who had started his lustrous career in his prepubescent years out of Gary, Indiana in the United States. His career spanned his lifetime and his meticulous attention to detail and his innovative styles supported a talent that was broad and powerful. However, the public image that was created for him and the subsequent events of his life led to public humiliation and suspicions of both madness and deviant behaviour. The nature of celebrity gossip, however, creates stories out of unsupportable concepts and a life that is not led traditionally is open to accusations that are unsupportable and, therefore, suspect. This paper will endeavour to examine the ways in which the rumours and suspicions measure against facts and truths that were not as sensational, but could have clarified and refined the public image that led to JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s downward spiral. The nature of the life of Michael Jackson was a long history of having his life framed by a public Ã¢â¬ËbrandÃ¢â¬â¢ which worked against him both personally and professionally in the end. In the 1980s he had a signature look which included one white glove and white socks. It was said of him that he slept in a hyperbaric chamber and the image that was created around him translated into a feeling of magic and mystery. He was an enigma, strange and mystical with talents that matched the message of his position as someone beyond the average human. What did not help his image was the evolving state of his face as he had multiple plastic surgeries and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Innovation and Entrepreneurship Specialism - Essay Example But the company holds over 60,000 products ranging from adhesive tapes to office stationary. The company is built around the chemical technology of coating and bonding (Strebel, 1987). Other mentionable items include equipment for traffic and safety signs, medical supplies, magnetic tapes and CDs. Their strategy of applying adhesive coating technologies to products has remained lucrative throughout their corporate history (Grant, 1991). The company also manufactures electrical equipment. The reason behind this success in innovation is its effective knowledge management system (Cavusgil, Calantone and Zhao, 2003). In the beginning, the company pursued a policy where the top management informally encouraged innovation but during later years the company formalized its innovation policy. It has built a culture based around innovation. Impressive financial success allows the company to maintain its innovation policy. Looking at 3Ms history it appears that their research and development culture is composed of elements that have not been modified in the companys 90 year history, but still the company is recognized for environmental leadership (Mitsch, 1992). 3M started its operations by selling sandpaper of inferior quality. It was quite an art to sell such a product. The company achieved this by getting closer to their clientele. They pursued a policy of relationship building with the customers. They demonstrated to the workmen how they could use this product. It was an example of relationship selling. This strategy taught the company a valuable lesson to get close with the customers and get to know their exact needs. Building such a relationship with the customers also gave the company an advantage where they could realize other market opportunities. The company apprehended early on that they could not simply compete based on price. The company identified certain niches that they could capitalize on. The first product they focused on was Three-M-IteÃ¢â ¢
Monday, November 18, 2019
Infrastructure Management - Essay Example In the technological world all odds have been met to ensure ease is experienced in spreading and accessing information. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is one field that has made information flow smooth and more efficient. Literature Review In the Business world, ICT has enhanced the possibilities of entrepreneurs to keep on the battle for survival in this competitive arena (Apellt, 1999). New mechanisms of accessing new market and the needed information from far distances with continuous knowledge gain is an advantage of good ICT employment. Additionally, the information between different organizations becomes real-time which tends to enhance the relationship between the customers and the organization. ICT is also the key factor to enabling business people get immediate feedback from their customers and use it as a way of indentifying their strong and weak points. The feedbacks from the customers also help in noticing the changes of demand, preferences and new marke t by an organization. ICT in companies or organizations is one platform that has to be closely monitored to ensure the best of it is achieved. IT professionals are employed in these areas to ensure that each and every required data from the networks is sufficiently reliable and available. In big companies, different departments are interconnected (intranet) to ensure much is shared and creates the virtual company of working from different offices (European commission, 2000). The intranet is established through local area networking or wireless networking. Information flow within a company is determined by how the ICT infrastructures are laid and managed. This infrastructure depends on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customization but the general overview of this would involve clients, routers, bridges, servers and virtual firewalls then the web. The client connects to the server through a router or a bridge; the server accepts the request and sends back the requested data. If a client needs to c onnect to the internet, the server will send the request through the firewall to the worldwide web. The replay path will be the same i.e. web-firewall-server Ã¢â¬âclient through the router. This brings us to common point in noting that, if a company properly utilizes the potentials presented by the ICT sector, then supply, customers and knowledge enhancement will be well managed. Statement of the Problem If we now analyze this scenario using Global Water Company, we find that the information channels are mostly used for communication within the regional locations. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s three locations namely, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States only communicate using the public networks. This seems to do no good to internal and external communications of the company. We are also quick to note that the rapid growth in the global business has made the communications here more difficult and unreliable in this company. Moreover, we find that the South African division is th e most clogged with a max of 300 clients being used by 400 workers. West Bromwich in UK also rags behind in efficiency since 200 computers are being used by 350 people. This is a great loop hole in the company in trying to keep up with the pace of the competitive world. The management has also come to its senses and noted the cost that the poor ICT structure is bringing to the company. Thanks to the management, the much required platform in gearing up
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Importance Of Recruiting Proper Employees Tourism Essay 1. Introduction: In todays competitive hotel and resort industry in china, the delivery of consistent quality service is imperative to success. As we all know, the hotel service starts with employees. They represent the human side of the brand; they are also the personality and face of a hotel. It is often these employees who create the most compelling points of differentiation between one hotel and another. Every hotel want to recruit the proper and excellent employee, so the hotel management must anticipate changes in the hospitability industry environment to ensure that people who are recruited have the unique skills, know-how, values required by the hotels strategic business objectives and proper for the position. Efforts to recruit proper employees have evolved to meet the growing demands of the industry and expectations of guests. We can also find that many hotel companies have begun treating employee recruitment with the same level of importance they would a consumer branding campaign, portray ing emotion-based messages to potential employees the way an image marketing campaign might be used to generate interest among potential guests. Instead of the traditional recruitment effort, hotels and resorts are using different kinds of ways to recruit proper employees, such as colorful full-page ads in lifestyle magazines, witty dialogue in radio advertising and dramatic visuals on outdoor billboards to attract the best of the best. This is no doubt a large investment, but when a hotel is looking to find the highest quality people to bring their brand to life and deliver its promise on a daily basis, the investment is nothing short of critical. It is evident that if the quality of services rendered is ensured, the benefits that the hotel enterprises reap will be substantial, first and foremost, in terms of customer satisfaction and consequently in terms of an increase in customers, financial gains, prestige and reputation. 2. Importance of recruiting proper employees More and more hotels attach importance to recruit proper employees, because that recruitment is a form of economic competition, one hotel competes with each other to identify, attract and employee qualified human resources. investment in HR practices impacts on the processes of creating customer value; through the attraction, selection and retention of high quality employees, providing appropriate skills.( AgustÃâÃ ±Ã ´n Quintana-DeÃ ´niz, 2007)It means that recruitment is a key marketing tool for hotel seeking competitive edge.The way in which the recruitment process is handled affects the hotels image as an employer, in turn, its ability to attract qualified people, so the HR department in hotel must ensure that applicants do not receive misleading or inaccurate information. Failure in this task can create unrealistic expectations among candidates. In turn, this may produce job dissatisfaction, lower commitment and high turnover. Recruitment begins identifying HR requirements and ends with receiving applications. It involves determining where qualified applicants can be found and choosing a specific means of attracting potential employees to the hotel, it immediately precedes the selection process and involves attracting qualified and interested candidates from either inside or outside who have the capacity to generate a sustainable competitive advantage for the hotel and to be effective, recruitment must satisfy the needs of the candidate as well as the needs of the hotel. You have to tell candidates what you have to offer as well as finding out what they can offer you The point here, however, is that recruitment and selection practices should reflect actual expected occupational standards and overall management philosophies. It also indicates the current use of recruitment practices in Chinese hotels. More use of appropriate applicant testing schemes, site tours and probationary periods may yield considerable benefits to potential employers. Innovativ e sources and recruitment practices will ensure value-added recruits who are already oriented to the demands and opportunities of a career within the hotel industry. 3. Recruiting problems in Chinese hotel It is a common knowledge that hospitality front-line employees frequently encounter demanding and difficult customers. Although it is not a pleasant experience, Hospitality service agents are often required to be polite and smile in front of the customers. (Hyun Jeong Kim, 2008) As a long time in China, many people consider that hospitality work is perceived as a servile, it means that in peoples eyes hospitality work is dirty, low skilled, low paid and therefore as capable of attracting only the young, women or the marginal in society , but now many people change their attitude among the hospitality work, especially the staff where work in some international 5-star hotel particularly may carry with it a high status, because the 5-star hotel need high-quality staff that willing to help people and project genuine smiles, they also should have professional hospitality skill and good communication skill. The fact is that more and more 5-star hotels need high-quality employees to join them, but the proper employees are very limited. If a hotel can not recruit proper employees for different department, it will impact the quality of services and r aising the turnover rate, because the employee who is not proper for their job will be stress at work. In general, work-related stress has been shown to result in declines in the quality of employee job performance (Gilboa et al., 2008) that is costly for organizations because it contributes to expensive voluntary turnover, (Villanueva and Djurkovic, 2009). Recent research has found that employee stress in the hospitality industry is important because it can result in work- ers becoming exhausted and cynical (Kim, 2008) which can have negative effects on service delivery. It is no doubt that is not good for hotel operating and competing with other hotels. 4. Preparing for recruiting proper employees If a hotel wants to recruit proper employee, they must do some good preparing for recruitment. The development of a proactive strategy and approach needs to be supported and backed by the organizations key decision makers and should be highlighted in company documents such as the mission statement or company values declaration.(Stefan Groschl,2007) Strategic recruitment does this by linking recruiting activities to the organizations business objectives and culture. Proper planning also helps hotel operators draft strategies to cope with the ever-changing HR demand, to improve training and to enhance the quality of human resources (Noe, 2008) Before the recruitment, HR department must communicate with line managers carefully and clearly, because line managers play an important part in recruitment process, the line managers know their departments very clearly and roundly, they can identify recruitment need, so they should help HR ensure what kinds of staffs are proper. After that deter mining number and type of jobs to be filled and match HR supply with job opening. The job analysis is also very important part; the HR people must analyze the attractive and unattractive features of the job first, the HR also should collect job information include job description (such as job title, duties and circumstances responsibilities, relationships, know-how, accountability, authority, special) and job specification(such as experience, qualifications, skills, abilities knowledge, personal qualities, special requirements) .More clearly and carefully prepare for recruiting , more effectively the recruitment results will appear. Preparing also can help HR determine which recruitment method they will choose. 5. Choosing a right recruitment method for hotel After preparing for recruitment, HR must choose a recruitment method. Regardless of whether recruitment is done internally or externally, effective planning and strategizing are essential to the success of the process. The hotel needs to know that it has the right employees with the right skills in the right places at the right time. 5.1 Internal recruitment If a hotel decides to hire permanent employees, the first critical question it needs to address is whether to recruit internally or externally. Recruiting from the current employee pool can benefit the hotel in a numbers of ways. The hotel already has performance dada on employees. The qualifications of internal candidates are already well known to the employer. The chance has been afforded to observe the applicants working performance, skills and capabilities, ability to get along with others and fit with the hotel. In addition, employees feel that the hotel is trying to provide them with promotional and development opportunities in reward for their performance and loyalty. Nevertheless, managements perceptions of an employee are likely to be more accurate, thus providing a better prediction of success than information gained about external candidates. Human resources department constitute an enormous investment for most hotels and it makes economic sense to try to improve the retur n on this investment by making full use of the abilities of existing employees. Finally, current employees know the hotel, its culture, politics and customers and have already established relationships with partners and thus require less orientation and training. Consequently, they need far less formal or informal socialization time than those hired form the outside. Internal recruitment is often much faster and far less expensive than going outside of the hotel for applicants Although internal recruiting has advantages, this approach also has some disadvantages. Internal recruitment can become very political and competitive, particularly when coworkers apply for the same position. Dysfunctional conflict may result and collegiality and interpersonal relationships can be strained, they may be promoted beyond their level of competence. In addition that, those employees not selected for the position can suffer from diminished morale and performance, particularly when they feel equally or better qualified than the candidate selected. The hotel can become inbred through excessive internal recruitment. Continuing to promote from within can encourage maintaining the status quo. A hotel need to improve organizational processes should usually recruit from outside. Finally, excessive internal recruitment can cause inefficiency by creating multiple vacancies. As this promotion chain continues down the hierarchy, an initial vacancy could spur promotions for a large nu mber of people. Nearly all employees require a certain period of time to learn a new job. Even when an employee has worked in the hotel for several years, a new position requires adjusting to new responsibilities and redefining interpersonal relationships with coworkers. Internal recruiting can exacerbate this effect by creating a large number of employees having new positions. Until these employees gain the level of competence that their predecessors had and sufficiently redefine their working relationships, inefficiency will result. In this method of internal recruiting, supervisors could choose an individual whose work capabilities are well known to them. The other way most commonly used approach to internal recruitment is job posting. Internal recruitment not only has its advantages but also disadvantages. It is probably best utilized when the hotel pursues a strategy related to stability, faces few major threats from its external environment, and is concerned with maintaining the status quo relative to its operating system. When time or money is limited, internal recruitment can be beneficial, as well. 5.2 External recruitment A hotels human resources department can use various approaches to locate and attract external candidates, often looking to more than one source. To choose an approach, the HR manager must know which recruitment channel is likely to be most successful in targeting a particular labor group. An electrician, a computer specialist and a general manager will each have their own preferred recruitment channels. Not surprisingly, the advantages of external recruitment are consistent with the disadvantages of internal recruitment. External recruitment facilitates change and tends to be more useful for hotels with volatile external environments. External recruitment can allow expanding its knowledge base beyond that of its existing employees and bringing in new ideas and viewpoints; external recruits are not bound by existing ways of thinking or doing things. Outside employees are not members of existing cliques. They can bring a fresh approach to problems that have plagued the hotel. At the senior level, candidates are often recruited for their history of bringing about high-level change in other hotels. External recruiting, however, can be expensive and time-consuming. Employees from outside the hotels will often need a longer socialization period to know the hotels cultures, services, coworkers and customers, they adjustment and orientation takes longer. External recruits are also unknown entities in that hotel has no experience working with them. Although an applicant may have outstanding skills, training or experience in and may have past success in another hotel, those factors do not guarantee similar success with a new hotel or an ability to fit with a new hotels culture. Finally, external recruiting can have detrimental effects on the morale of those employees who have applied for the job internally, but have not been selected. A variety of methods can be used to recruit candidates externally, such as employee referrals, applicant-initiated recruitment, help-wanted advertisements, public employment agencies, private employment agencies, executive search firms, campus recruitin g and online recruiting. Furthermore, Web-based recruiting is not limited to external applicants but can also be used to attract current employees. For instance, job openings can be posted on an organizations intranet in order to announce opportunities for current employees to move into an e-service position.( Karen,2008)The choice of an external recruitment method depends on the circumstances surrounding the recruitment situation. 6. Interviewing Choosing a right recruiting method is not enough to recruit proper employees for a hotel; it also needs a comprehensive and impersonal interviewing. It is no doubt that interviewing is a vital selection tool to ensure the candidate whether is proper for the position. Interviewers should include HR professionals, the manager of viable candidates and upper-level manager. Interviewing applicants involves making subjective assessments of each applicants qualifications for a job. It is easy to find that more and more group interviewing are used now, group interviewing allows different interviewers to contrast and compare their interpretations of the same interview information. Consequently, this type interviewing often helps overcome many of errors that individual interviewers might make, it also can save time for the hotel and applicant, but they often involve creating a less personal atmosphere for applicants. Sometimes group interviewing may make it more difficult for interviewers to g et a sense of the applicants interpersonal style. In more recent years, however, a growing interest among strategy researchers has emphasized the importance of behavioral explanations to strategy development. ( Baker M. Ayoun, 2008)If you work in a five-star hotel, good behavior is very important for your career. The hotel management also pays more attention to that, so in recent years, behavioral interviewing has become increasingly popular, which involve determining whether an applicants anticipated behavior in a variety of situations scenarios posed in interview question with experienced applicants as well as with those who have limited professional hospitality working experience, because that interviewers will ask some situations that the candidates will face on their jobs in the future. Thus, new templates of organizing for the hotel industry seemed to evolve over time.(PÃ ¤iviKarhunen,2008)Before the behavioral interviewing, the interviewers must determine the most important behavioral characteristics required for given a job , it is very important for choosing proper employees form the candidates, because these can be identified by examining the key traits displayed by high performing incumbents. The hotel management can use this interviewing to looks for the candidates problem-solving ability, interpersonal communication style, decision making ability and problem analysis ability. If interviews are structured, the interviewers should pay attention that all candidates are asked the same questions and are given the same chance to respond and explain their views, it becomes easier to compare applicant responses to identical questions. If interviews are unstructured, the questions can be flexible. The hotel can choose the style of interviews depends on what kinds of people you will recruit, if you interview a job that require creativity ability, such as marketing job, the interviewers may choose less structured or unstructured interviews. On the other hand, attitude, self-efficacy and subjective norm were related to behavioral intention of adopting IT (Terry Lam, 2007 ) It is meaningful for asking candidates to describe their behaviors or actions they have taken in specific situations, it can help HR and line managers to estimate and ensure whether he or she is proper employee for this department in hotel. It also can assist the hotel in determining the fit between the applicants and hotels culture and processes. The interviewers should also pay attention that Candidates are just as interested in making the right decision as the client; they want as much information as possible, they want to feel welcomed when they interview, and they want to know they will be properly supported if they accept the position(Karen K. Kirby,2008) 7. Testing If a hotel wants to ensure whether the employee is proper for his position, testing is very important part .The needs of the hotel and job structure include specific responsibilities, interpersonal relationships with others and so forth will determine whether any or all of the following should be assessed: technical skills, interpersonal skills, personality traits, problem-solving abilities or any other job-related performance indicators. The key variable that should influence testing is job requirements. Any testing that is not specifically job-related could be legally challenged, particularly if adverse impact can be shown. The timing of testing can depend on hotels, traditionally, testing has been conducted after the interviewing and screening process due to the expense of testing and time required scoring and evaluating test results. However, some hotels are now testing earlier in the selection process because costs involved with interviewing often exceed the costs of testing. Clearly, it makes sense for an employer to use more cost-effective screening earlier in the selection process. Perhaps the most useful types of tests are work sample and trainability. Work sample is similar as on-job testing, it involve giving the applicant a representative sample of work that would be part of the job and asking the individual to complete it. These tests are useful when the management needs employees who will be able to perform job responsibilities from the first day of employment. Trainability tests measure an applicants aptitude and ability to understand critical components of the job that the company may be willing to teach once the employee is hired. They are useful when the management needs some familiarity with the nature of the work but seeks to train the new employee in the hotels way to do right things. 8. Summary After the explain in this article, you can find out how important to recruit the proper employees for 5-star hotels, only have the high-quality staff, the assessment and expectations of hotel will keep on the high level and compete with other hotels. So before the recruitment, HR people should communicate with line managers comprehensively to identify recruitment needs. HR also need do some other preparing such as job description and job specification. After preparing for recruiting well, HR should choose the recruitment method depends on the situation, no matter choosing internal recruitment or external recruitment, the HR needs to ensure that it has the right employees with the right skills in the right places at the right time. If hotel wants to recruit proper employees, only well preparing and choosing right recruitment method is not enough, it also need a comprehensive interviewing and testing. Management should pay attention to using behavioral interviewing, because those inter viewers will ask some situations that the candidates will face on their jobs in the future, the interviewers will determine whether the candidates have the most important behavioral characteristics required for given a job. Management also can use some testing to identify whether the applicant is proper for the position. 9. Conclusion As the hotel industry is labor intensive, its products and services rely to a great degree on people, which amount to a huge proportion of overall costs. (Lin Lin, Jeou-ShyanHorng, Yi-ChenChen, Chang-YenTsai, 2010) It is also widely accepted that the quality of services offered by Hotel personnel and the resulting customer satisfaction are key to the survival and success of Hotel units. In addition, it is very important that the assessment and expectations of hotel directors regarding the quality of services extended to their customers as well as the hotel personnel available be considered and understood in order to ensure that these expectations are met at the desired level. Especially in China, hospitality industry is developing faster and faster, more and more foreigners come to china to visit or have a business trip, so Chinese hospitality industry need lots of high-quality staffs, but in fact, the hospitality professionals are very limited, so hotel management should pay attenti on to recruit proper employees that with the right skills in the right places at the right time, so HR should do some well preparing for recruitment and choose the right recruitment method. While HR and management are interviewing and testing, they should focuses on candidates behavioral interviewing to identify whether they have the most important behavioral characteristics required for given a job. All in all, hotel should try their best to ensure the employees they recruit are proper for their job, and work as the professionals. Therefore, enhancing the quality of employees is a must in the hospitality industry (Collins, 2007)